Persuasive Agents


The goal of the “Persuasive Agents”-project is to develop novel techniques for persuading the members of a household to save energy. To this purpose teams of psychologists (Eindhoven) and computer scientists (Tilburg) collaborate with Smart Homes, the Dutch Expertise Centre on Home Automation & Smart Living.

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Contact Info

Jaap
Dr. J.R.C Ham, PhD
...
www.jaapham.nl/
Eindhoven University of Technology
Department of Innovation Sciences
Section Human-Technology Interaction
IPO 1.36
PO Box 513
5600 MB Eindhoven
The Netherlands
+31 402474210
TU/e

About

Jaap Ham is assistant professor at the department of Human-Technology Interaction of Eindhoven University of Technology. His research investigates the social psychology of human-technology interaction. More specifically, he studies the way technology can be used to help people change their behavior (Persuasive Technology). For example, he studies the way social agents (robots) can be used to help people save energy. Also he is very much interested in technology that influences human behavior from the environment, without the necessity for conscious attention (Ambient Persuasive Technology). Next to academic collaboration (supervising 4 PhD-students and many master students, international networks), Jaap Ham’s research is also closely connected to industry. For example, he recently received a large grant in collaboration with Philips Lighting in which a team of 15 applied researchers, and several academic researchers jointly will investigate using lighting as (ambient) persuasive technology.

In my research projects, I study other questions related to social cognition, social perception and judgment. In many research project I study the role of automaticity and the unconscious.

One of my most important lines of research is Social Robotics. Here I investigated (Ham, Midden & Tak, 2008) that negative feedback from a robotic agent has stronger persuasive effects (changes behavior) than positive feedback. Related research studies Persuasive Technology, and more specifically Ambient Persuasive Technology.

Publications

International journal publications

Broeders, R., Van den Bos, K., Mueller, P. A., & Ham, J. (2011). Should I save or should I not kill? How people solve moral dilemmas depends on which rule is most salient. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 923-934. ISI Journal.
Ham, J. & Van den Bos, K. (2011). On unconscious and conscious thought and the accuracy of implicit and explicit judgments. Social Cognition, 29, 648-667. ISI Journal.

Ham, J. & Van den Bos, K. (2011). On Justice Knowledge Activation: Evidence for Spontaneous Activation of Social Justice Inferences. Social Justice Research, 24, 43-65. ISI Journal.

Roubroeks, M., Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2011). When artificial social agents try to persuade people: The role of social agency on the occurrence of psychological reactance. International Journal of Social Robotics. 3, 155-165.

Ham, J., & Vonk, R. (2011). Impressions of impression management: Evidence of spontaneous suspicion of ulterior motivation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 466-471. ISI Journal.

Maan, S., Merkus, B., Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2011). Making it not too obvious: The effect of ambient light feedback on space heating energy consumption. Energy Efficiency, 4, 175-183.

Todd, A. R., Molden, D. C., Ham, J., & Vonk, R. (2011). The automatic and co-occurring activation of multiple social inferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 37-49. ISI Journal.

Ham, J., & Van den Bos (2010). On unconscious morality: The effects of unconscious versus conscious thinking on moral decision making. Social Cognition, 28, 74-83. ISI Journal.

Ham, J., & Van den Bos, K. (2010). The merits of unconscious processing of directly and indirectly obtained information about social justice. Social Cognition, 28, 180-191. ISI Journal.

Ham, J., Van den Bos, K., & Van Doorn, E. A. (2009). Lady justice thinks unconsciously: Unconscious thought can lead to more accurate justice judgments. Social Cognition, 27, 510-522. ISI Journal.

Ham, J., & Van den Bos, K. (2008). Not fair for me! The influence of personal relevance on social justice inferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 699-705. ISI Journal.

Van den Bos, K., Ham, J., Lind, E. A., Simonis, M., Van Essen, W. J., & Rijpkema, M. (2008). Justice and the human alarm system: The impact of exclamation points and flashing lights on the justice judgment process. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 201-219. ISI Journal.

Ham, J. (2004). Bridging attribution and spontaneous inferences:
Spontaneous and intentional components of dispositional and situational inferences. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Reeder, G. D., Vonk, R., Ronk, M. J., Ham, J., & Lawrence, M. (2004). Dispositional attribution: Multiple inferences about motive-related traits. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 86, 530-544. ISI Journal.

Ham, J. & Vonk, R. (2003). Smart and easy: Co-occurring activation of spontaneous trait inferences and spontaneous situational inferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 434-447. ISI Journal.

Edited Volumes Masthof, J., Grasso, F., & Ham, J. (2012). Special issue on Personalisation and Behaviour Change. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction (UMUAI, ISI journal).

Mutlu, B., Bartneck, C., Ham, J., Evers, C. & Kanda, T. (2011). Conference proceedings of the International Conference on Social Robotics 2011. LNCS 7072, Springer, Heidelberg.

Grasso, F., Ham, J. & Masthof, J. (2011). User modelling for motivational systems: The affective and the rational routes to persuasion. Proceedings of the second UMMS workshop at UMAP2011. LNCS series, Springer.


Books Midden, C., & Ham, J. (2012). Persuasive technology to promote environmental behavior. In L. Steg, A. E. van den Berg, & J. I. M. de Groot (Eds.). Environmental Psychology: An Introduction. Wiley–Blackwell.


Conference papers 2011 (number of conference papers = 15)

Ham, J., Bokhorst, R., Cuijpers, R., Van der Pol, D., & Cabibihan, J.-J. (2011). Making robots persuasive: The influence of combining persuasive strategies (gazing and gestures) by a storytelling robot on its persuasive power. Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Robotics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, November 24-25, 2011.

Cuijpers, R. H., Bruna, M. T., Ham, J. & Torta, E. (2011). Attitude towards robots depends on interaction but not on anticipatory behavior. Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Robotics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, November 24-25, 2011.

Liu, C., Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2011). Persuasive robotics: Artificial embodied agents as persuasive technology. Poster presented at the International Conference on Social Robotics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, November 24-25, 2011.

Ruijten, P., Ham J., & Midden, C. (2011). Social exclusion, anthropomorphism and persuasion: The influence of social exclusion on persuasion by an artificial social agent. Poster presented at the International Conference on Social Robotics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, November 24-25, 2011.

Van Iersel, B., Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2011). Powerful agents: Enhancing an artificial social agent’s persuasiveness by increasing its perceived social power. Poster presented at the International Conference on Social Robotics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, November 24-25, 2011.


Midden, C., Ham, J., Kleppe, M., Kimura, H., & Nakajima, T. (2011). Persuasive power in groups: The influence of group feedback and individual comparison feedback on energy consumption behavior. Conference proceedings of Persuasive 2011, Columbus Ohio. Springer: Heidelberg.

Verberne, F. M. F., Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2011, June). Persuading to rely on technology. Paper presented at Persuasive 2011, Columbus, Ohio.

Roubroeks, M., Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2011, June). Investigating the media equation hypothesis: Do we really see computer agents as human-like? Paper presented at Persuasive 2011, Columbus, OH, USA.

Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2011). Persuasive robots can help save energy: The influence of the agency of a robot on its power to influence sustainable behavior. Paper presented at the 9th International conference on Environmental Psychology, 2011, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Ruijten, P., Midden, C., & Ham, J. (2011). Unconscious persuasion needs goal-striving: The effect of goal activation on the persuasive power of subliminal feedback. Paper presented at the 9th International conference on Environmental Psychology, 2011, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Verberne, F. M. F., Midden, C., & Ham, J. (2011). How to trust and accept automation technology in cars. Paper presented at Environment 2.0, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Broeders, R., Lakens, D., Midden, C. & Ham, J. (2011). An embodied cognition approach to litter reduction: The grounding of clean in shininess. Paper presented at the 9th International conference on Environmental Psychology, 2011, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Terken, J., Ham, J., & Hoedemaker, M. (2011). Human Factors in Automotive Innovation. Conference proceedings of the International Automotive Congress, 2011, The Hague.

2010 (number of conference papers = 7)

Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2010). A persuasive robotic agent to save energy: The influence of social feedback, feedback valence and task similarity on energy conservation behavior. Conference Proceedings of Social Robotics 2010, Singapore.

Reitberger, W., Meschterjakov, A., Tscheligi, M., Ham, J., & De Ruyter, B. (2010). Measuring (ambient) persuasive technology. Conference proceedings of Measuring Behavior 2010, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Midden, C., & Ham, J. (2010). Using negative and positive social feedback from a robotic agent to save energy, the moderating roles of feedback relevance and multiple goal activation. IAREP/SABE/ICABEEP 2010 Conference. Koeln, Germany.

Midden, C., & Ham, J. (2010). Using negative and positive social feedback from a robotic agent to save energy, the moderating roles of feedback relevance and multiple goal activation. International Conference on Applied Psychology 2010. Melbourne, Australia.

Roubroeks, M., Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2010). The dominant robot: Threatening robots cause psychological reactance, especially when they have incongruent goals. Conference proceedings of Persuasive 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Vossen, S., Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2010). What makes social feedback from a robot work? Disentangling the effect of speech, physical appearance and evaluation. Conference proceedings of Persuasive 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2010). Ambient persuasive technology needs little cognitive effort: The differential effects of cognitive load on lighting feedback versus factual feedback. Conference proceedings of Persuasive 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark.

2009 (number of conference papers = 12)

Reitberger, W., Ham, J., Weiss, A., Spahn, A., Meschtscherjakov, A., Nickel, P., Tscheligi, M., “The Ubiquitous Persuader” – Mechanisms, Applications and Ethical Dilemmas of Ambient Persuasion, Workshop, Adj. Proc. AmI2009, Salzburg

Ham, J., Midden, C., & Vossen, S. (2009). Using positive and negative social feedback to promote energy conservation behavior in the home. Paper presented at Human-Robot Personal Relationships, 2009, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Midden, C., & Ham, J. (2009). Using persuasive technology to promote sustainable behavior in smart home environments. Paper presented at Human-Robot Personal Relationships, 2009, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Roubroeks, M., Midden, C., & Ham, J. (2009). Persuasive agents and the occurrence of reactance as a result of restricting communication. Paper presented at Human-Robot Personal Relationships, 2009, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Ham, J., Midden, C., Maan, S., & Merkus, B. (2009). Persuasive lighting: The influence of feedback through lighting on energy conservation behavior. Conference proceedings of Experiencing Light, 2009, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Ham, J., Midden, C., & Beute, F. (2009). Unconscious persuasion by ambient persuasive technology: evidence for the effectiveness of subliminal feedback. Conference proceedings of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour, 2009, Edinburgh, UK.

Ham. J., & Midden, C. (2009). A Robot That Says “Bad!”: Using Negative and Positive Social Feedback From a Robotic Agent to Save Energy. Conference proceedings of Human-Robot Interaction, 2009, San Diego, USA.

Ham, J., Midden, C., & Beute, F. (2009). Can Ambient Persuasive Technology Persuade Unconsciously? Using Subliminal Feedback to Influence Energy Consumption Ratings of Household Appliances. Conference proceedings of Persuasive 2009, Claremont, USA.

Midden, C., & Ham, J. (2009). Using Negative and Positive Social Feedback From a Robotic Agent to Save Energy. Conference proceedings of Persuasive 2009, Claremont, 2009.

Vossen, S., Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2009). Social Influence of a Persuasive Agent: the Role of Agent Embodiment and Evaluative Feedback. Conference proceedings of Persuasive 2009, Claremont, USA.

Roubroeks, M., Midden, C., & Ham, J. (2009). Does It Make a Difference Who Says It? Exploring the Role of a Social Agent for Psychological Reactance. Conference proceedings of Persuasive 2009, Claremont, USA.

Dunn, G., Wiersema, J., Ham, J., & Aroyo, L. (2009). Evaluating interface variants on personality acquisition for recommender systems. Proceedings of User Modelling, Adaptation, and Personalization, 2009, Trento, Italy, June 22-26, 2009. Springer Verlag: Berlin.

2008 (number of conference papers = 3)

Ham, J., Midden, C., & Tak, S. (2008). The persuasive effects of positive and negative social feedback from an embodied agent on energy conservation behavior. Proceedings of Persuasive 2008, Oulu, Finland, June 4-6, 2008. Oulu, Finland: University of Oulu.

Midden, C., McCalley, T., Ham, J., & Zaalberg, R. (2008). Using persuasive technology to encourage sustainable behavior. Proceedings of Pervasive 2008, Sydney, May 19-22 2008. Sydney: Conference organization.

Midden, C., & Ham, J. (2008). The persuasive effects of positive and negative social feedback from an embodied agent on energy conservation behavior. Proceedings of the (British) Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour, Aberdeen, April 1-4 2008. Aberdeen: Conference organization.



Dutch Beute, F., Ham, J., & Midden, C. (2009). Beïnvloeding door subliminale feedback. Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie 2009, Groningen: ASPO pers.

Broeders, R., Van den Bos, K., Müller, P., & Ham, J. (2008). Redden of niet doden? Hoe mensen morele dilemma’s oplossen hangt af van welk interpretatiekader het meest saillant is. Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie 2008. Groningen: ASPO pers.

Broeders, R., Van den Bos, K., & Ham, J. (2007). Assimilatie- en contrasteffecten binnen het rechtvaardigheidsbeslissingsproces: Waarom vrouwe Justitia en moeder Teresa een tegengestelde invloed hebben op wat je goed en slecht vindt. [Assimilation and contrast effects on the justice judgment process: Why lady Justice and mother Teresa have opposing influences on what you think is right or wrong]. In C. van Laar, R. Ruiter, J. Ouwerkerk. Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie 2006. Groningen: ASPO pers.

Holland, R. W., Ouwerkerk, J., Van Laar, C., Ruiter, R., & Ham, J. (Eds.). (2006). Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie 2005. Groningen: ASPO Pers.

Loseman, A., Van den Bos, K., & Ham, J. (2005). Rechtvaardigheid als individualistisch proces: De invloed van (on)rechtvaardigheid op zelfactivatie. [Justice as an individualistic process: The influence of (in)justice on self activation]. In E. H. Gordijn, R. Holland, A. Meijnders, J. Ouwerkerk. Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie 2004 (pp. 249-256). Groningen: Aspo pers.

Ham, J. & Vonk, R. (2003). Attributies ontleed: Spontane en intentionele componenten van sociale gevolgtrekkingen. [Attributions dissected: Spontaneous and intentional components of social inferences]. In D. Wigboldus, M. Dechesne, E. Gordijn, & E. Kluwer (Eds.). Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie 2003 (pp. 111-118). Groningen: Aspo.

Ham, J. & Vonk, R. (2002). De invloed van verwerkingsdoelen op sociale spontane en intentionele gevolgtrekkingen. [The influence of processing goals on social intentional and spontaneous inferences]. In D. A. Stapel, C. Martijn, E. van Dijk, A. Dijksterhuis (Eds.), Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie, deel 1. Delft: Eburon.

Ham, J. & Vonk, R. (2001). Gelijktijdige activatie van spontane inferenties over eigenschappen van personen en van situaties [Simultaneous activation of spontaneous inferences of properties of person and situation]. In D. A. Stapel, C. Martijn, E. van Dijk, A. Dijksterhuis (Eds.), Fundamentele Sociale Psychologie, deel 15. Delft: Eburon.


Popular scientific publications
Ham, J. (2010). Verleidende robots en waarschuwende lampen: Effectieve beinvloeding van energiebesparend gedrag door Persuasive Technology. Smart Homes Magazine, September 2010.

Role in project

Chief investigator Ambient Persuasive Technology, Social Robotics.